Dr. Anil Sharma

Prostate Conditions

Prostate conditions refer to various medical issues that can affect the prostate gland, a small gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum in males. The prostate gland plays a role in producing seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. There are several prostate conditions, each with its own causes and characteristics.

Some common prostate conditions include:

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH):

BPH is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that commonly occurs as men age. As the prostate gland grows, it can squeeze the urethra, leading to urinary symptoms such as:

Frequent urination, especially at night (nocturia)

Weak urine flow

Difficulty starting or stopping urination

Incomplete emptying of the bladder

The exact cause of BPH is not fully understood, but age-related hormonal changes, particularly changes in levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are believed to play a role.


Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate gland.

It can be caused by various factors, including:

Bacterial infection: Acute bacterial prostatitis is caused by a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. Chronic bacterial prostatitis involves recurrent or persistent infections.

Non-bacterial causes: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is the most common form of prostatitis and is not associated with bacterial infection. Its exact cause is unclear, but it may involve inflammation, nerve sensitivity, or muscle tension.

Prostate Cancer:

Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the prostate gland begin to grow uncontrollably. The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, but factors that may contribute include:

Age: Prostate cancer risk increases with age, especially after 50.

Family history: A family history of prostate cancer increases the risk.

Genetics: Certain gene mutations and variants may increase susceptibility.

Race and ethnicity: African-American men have a higher risk, and Asian-American and Hispanic/Latino men have a lower risk compared to white men.

Diet: Diets high in red meat and dairy and low in fruits and vegetables may increase risk.

Prostate Enlargement with Age:

As men age, it's common for the prostate gland to naturally enlarge, a condition known as age-related prostate enlargement. This is not the same as BPH, although the two conditions can coexist.

Prostate Nodules and Cysts:

Nodules and cysts can develop in the prostate gland. These may or may not cause symptoms and are often discovered during medical examinations or imaging studies.

It's important to note that the causes of prostate conditions can vary, and some conditions, like prostate cancer, may have multiple contributing factors. If you're experiencing symptoms or have concerns about your prostate health, it's advisable to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate management. Regular prostate screenings and check-ups are important, especially as men age.


Diagnosing prostate conditions involves a combination of medical history assessment, physical examination, and specific tests. The diagnostic process can vary depending on the suspected condition.

Here's how prostate conditions are typically diagnosed:

Medical History and Symptom Assessment: A healthcare provider will begin by asking about your medical history and any symptoms you may be experiencing. This can help identify potential risk factors and guide further evaluation.

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE): During a DRE, the healthcare provider inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland for any abnormalities, such as enlargement, nodules, or areas of tenderness. This can help detect conditions like BPH, prostatitis, and prostate cancer.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: The PSA blood test measures the level of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland, in the blood. Elevated PSA levels can indicate various prostate conditions, including BPH and prostate cancer. However, PSA levels can be elevated for reasons other than cancer, such as inflammation or infection.

Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS): This imaging test uses sound waves to create a picture of the prostate gland. It can help assess the size, shape, and texture of the prostate and is often used to guide prostate biopsies.

Prostate Biopsy: If there are concerns about prostate cancer, a biopsy may be recommended. During a biopsy, small tissue samples are taken from the prostate gland using a thin needle. These samples are then examined under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present.

Uroflowmetry: This test measures the rate of urine flow during urination and can help assess urinary symptoms associated with prostate conditions.

Cystoscopy: In some cases, a thin, flexible tube with a camera (cystoscope) is inserted into the urethra to visualize the prostate and bladder. This can help evaluate the urinary tract and identify any abnormalities.

MRI or CT Scan: Imaging studies like MRI or CT scans may be used to provide detailed images of the prostate and surrounding tissues. These tests can help determine the extent of any abnormalities.

Urine Tests: Urine tests can help rule out urinary tract infections or other conditions that may be causing symptoms similar to prostate issues.

Nuclear Bone Scan or PET Scan: In cases of suspected advanced prostate cancer, these imaging tests may be used to determine if cancer has spread to the bones or other parts of the body.

It's important to note that the diagnostic approach will vary depending on the specific prostate condition being evaluated. Early detection and proper diagnosis are crucial for timely management and treatment. If you're experiencing symptoms or have concerns about your prostate health, it's recommended to consult a healthcare provider who specializes in urology or prostate health for appropriate evaluation and guidance.


Assessing the morbidity (impact on health and well-being) of prostate conditions involves evaluating the symptoms, complications, and overall effect on a patient's quality of life. Treatment strategies for prostate conditions aim to alleviate symptoms, manage complications, and improve the patient's overall well-being.

Here's an overview of how the assessment of morbidity and treatment for prostate conditions is approached:

Assessment of Morbidity:

Symptom Evaluation: A thorough assessment of the patient's symptoms is crucial. This may include evaluating urinary symptoms (such as frequency, urgency, weak stream), pain or discomfort, sexual function, and any systemic symptoms like fatigue or weight loss.

Physical Examination: A physical examination, including a digital rectal examination (DRE), helps assess the prostate's size, texture, and any irregularities.

Imaging: Depending on the condition, imaging studies like ultrasound, MRI, or CT scans may be used to visualize the prostate gland and surrounding structures.

Biopsy: If prostate cancer is suspected, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the cancer's aggressiveness.

Laboratory Tests: Blood tests, such as the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, can provide information about the prostate's health and potential abnormalities.

Quality of Life Assessment: Patients' quality of life, including the impact of symptoms on daily activities, emotional well-being, and social interactions, is an essential aspect of morbidity assessment.

Treatment Strategies:

The choice of treatment depends on the specific prostate condition, its severity, and the patient's overall health. Treatment goals may include symptom relief, disease management, and improvement in quality of life.

Watchful Waiting/Active Surveillance: For certain prostate conditions, especially low-risk prostate cancer, a strategy of watchful waiting or active surveillance may be recommended. This involves monitoring the condition over time and intervening only if it progresses.

Medications: Medications can be prescribed to manage symptoms, reduce inflammation, shrink the prostate gland (in BPH), or slow the growth of cancer cells (in prostate cancer).

Minimally Invasive Procedures: Procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or laser therapy may be used to treat BPH by removing excess prostate tissue that is causing urinary obstruction.

Radiation Therapy: Radiation may be used to treat prostate cancer, either alone or in combination with other treatments.

Surgery: Surgical options include prostatectomy (removal of the prostate gland) for prostate cancer and surgical procedures for BPH, such as TURP or robotic-assisted surgery.

Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy may be used to suppress the production of hormones that stimulate prostate cancer growth.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used for advanced prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Supportive Care: Addressing the patient's overall well-being through pain management, nutritional support, psychological counseling, and physical therapy can significantly improve quality of life.

Palliative Care: For advanced or terminal prostate cancer, palliative care focuses on symptom management, pain relief, and improving the patient's comfort and quality of life.

The treatment approach is highly individualized, and decisions are made in consultation with the patient's healthcare team. The goal is to provide effective treatment while minimizing side effects and maximizing the patient's overall health and well-being.


Get in touch

Get your news letter

    Corporate Address

    3rd Floor, A-304, Bonanza, Sahar Plaza Complex,Andheri – Kurla Road, J. B. Nagar, Andheri East,Mumbai, Mumbai Suburban,Maharashtra: 400059

    Contact Us

    Copyright ©All rights reserved